Monday, 21 May 2018

Knowing Myself is the Key to Knowing Others (Part Seven)

Personality Models (Part III): DiSC
DISC is probably the most popular personality model in use. It was developed by William Moulton Marston (1928), a lawyer and psychologist, the result of his study on emotions and behavior of typical people. Marston postulated people's personality were based on two dimensions. First, the person's view of how favorable or unfavorable the environment is. Second, the person's perception of control or the lack thereof over his environment. This results in four (4) primary personality styles which form the acronym, DISC. These are:
  • Dominance 
    • Produce activity in antagonistic environment; 
    • Outgoing and Task Oriented;
    • Relate to control, power and assertiveness;
    • Overcomes opposition to win;
    • Focused on problems and form about 18% of the population,
  • Inducement / Influence
    • Produce activity in favorable environment; 
    • Outgoing and People Oriented;
    • Relate to social situations and communication; 
    • Shapes the environment through persuasion
    • Focused on people and form about 28% of the population,
  • Submission / Steadiness
    • Produce passivity in favorable environment; 
    • Reserved and Task Oriented;
    • Relate to patience, persistence, and thoughtfulness;
    • Works within present conditions to complete tasks;
    • Focused on pace and form about 40% of the population, and
  • Compliance / Conscientious
    • Produce passivity in antagonistic environment; 
    • Outgoing and People Oriented; 
    • Relate to structure and organization; 
    • Focused on procedures. quality and accuracy;
    • Form about 14% of the population.


Walter Vernon Clarke (1956), an industrial psychologist, took Marston theory a step further, by developing a behavioral assessment tool for it. These include twelve personality styles, which are as follows,

Dominance (The Driver, Doer, Developer, Pioneer, Problem-Solver, Risk-Taker, Self-Starter; Winner)
Traits
Bold; Confident; Courageous; Competitive; Direct; Decisive; Determined; Demanding; Forceful
Desires
Challenge; Victory; Bottom-line Results
Focus
Problems
Leadership Style
Commanding; Resolute; Pioneering
Value to Team
Bottom-line Organizer; Big Picture, Task and Tangible Results Focused; Time Conscious; Innovative; Challenges Status Quo 
Weaknesses
Argumentative; Aggressive; Blinded by own reasoning; Impatient; Short Fuse; Opinionated; Hypercritical; Domineering

Fears
Being Taken Advantage of; Appearing Weak; Loss of Control; Routine
Motivation
New Challenges; Power and Authority; Freedom from Routine and Mundane Tasks; Changing Environment
Examples
Simon Cowell; Warren Buffet; Steve Jobs
We are here to put a dent in the universe. Otherwise, why else even be here. (Steve Jobs)
The DC Style (The Producer, Challenger) 
Traits
Independent; Creative; Practical; Serious Minded; Passionate; Self Motivated; Efficient; Accurate; Perfectionist; Sensitive 
Desires
Challenge; Results; Accuracy; Independence; Personal Accomplishment and Mastery; Competence; Control
Leadership Style
Set High Standards and Expectations; Speaks up About Issues; Resolute
Weaknesses
Pessimism
Fears
Falling Short of Self Determined Standards; Helplessness; Incompetence; Vulnerableness

The Di Style (The Pioneer) 
Traits
Individualistic; Logical; Incisive; Critical; Forward-Looking; Competitive; Efficient; Inspirational; Flexible; 
Desires
Quick Action; New Opportunities
Leadership Style
Pioneering; Think and Respond very Quickly
Weaknesses
Easily Bored; Short-tempered; Hypercritical; Domineering 
Fears
Loss of Power
Conformity is the jailer of freedom and the enemy of growth. (John F. Kennedy)

Inducement (The Influencer, Initiator, Promoter)
Traits
Enthusiastic; Lively; Emotional; Sociable; Trusting; Optimistic; Impressive; Interactive; Talkative; Inspiring; Impulsive; Persuasive
Focus
People
Desires
Enthusiasm; Collaboration; Popularity; Approval; Excitement
Leadership Style
Energizing; Pioneering; Affirming
Value to Team
Creative Problem Solver; Great Encourager; Motivator; Positive Sense of Humor; Peacemaker 
Weaknesses
Inattentive to Details; Fear of Rejection; Selective Listener; Impulsive
Fears
Rejection
Motivation
Praise and Appreciation; Popularity; Acceptance; Freedom from Routine and details; Flattery
Examples
Oprah Winfrey; Anne Frank; Sheryl Sandberg 
I want every little girl who has been told she's bossy be told to be told instead she has leadership skills. (Sheryl Sandberg)
The iD Style (The Persuader):
Have strong self-motivation to set and achieve objectives. 
Traits
Optimistic; Self-confident; Persuasive; Sociable; Change Oriented; Independent; Persistent; Decisive; Direct; Demanding; Highly Influencer; Outgoing Spirit; Enthusiastic
Desires
Action; Enthusiasm; Results
Leadership Style
Pioneering; Think and Respond very Quickly
Weaknesses
Not Good Listener; Desire for Control
Fears
Fixed Environment; Loss of Approval or Attention

The iS Style (The Counselor):
Have inner need to develop an maintain friendships
Traits
Warm; Friendly; Caring; Accepting; Modest; Trusting; Influential; Team-player; Loyal; Patient; Sensitive
Desires
Friendship; Connection; Acceptance; Wanted
Fears
Pressuring Others; Being Disliked
Leadership Style
Affirming; Approachable and Acknowledgement of Contribution
Weaknesses
Avoid Conflicts; Takes Criticism Personal 
I had no idea that being your authentic self could make me as rich as I've become. If I had, I'd have done it a lot earlier. (Oprah Winfrey) 

Submission / Steadiness (The Servant, Good-Listener, Team-player; Peacekeeper)
Emphasize cooperation with others in existing environment to reach goals
Traits
Steady; Supportive; Sensitive; Stable; Calm; Sincere; Patient; Modest; Predictable; Understanding; Cooperative
Desires
Harmony; Stability; Routine; Guidelines; Rules
Focus
Pace
Leadership Style
Inclusive; Humble; Affirming
Value to Team
Reliable; Dependable; Compliant to Constituted Authority
Weaknesses
Sensitive to Criticism; Resist Change; Indecisive; Tendency to Hold Grudges; Bottle up Emotions; Avoids critical feedback
Fears
Loss of Security; Rapid Change; Letting People Down
Motivation
Recognition; Safety; Security; No sudden change
Examples
Mother Teresa, Nelson Mandela; Ralph Waldo Emerson; Marissa Mayer
Work for someone who believes in you, because when they believe in you they will invest in you. (Marissa Mayer)
The Si Style (The Collaborator)
I am valuable because I make other people happy
Traits
Thoughtful; Natural-born Team Player; Good Listener
Desires
Acceptance; Connection; Wanted; Harmony; Quality Results
Leadership Style
Affirming; Open; Receptive
Weaknesses
Avoids Conflict
Fears
Aggression; Pressuring Others

The SC Style (The Investigator)
Have inner need to be objective and analytical
Traits
Stable; Controlled; Cautious; Unemotional; Dispassionate; Systematic; Perfectionist; Determined; Dogged; Stubborn; Persistent
Desires
Calmness; Fixed Objectives; Steady Progress
Leadership Style
Humility; Fair Minded; Establish Routine and Structure
Weaknesses
Loves Inertia; Avoids Conflict
Fears
Time Pressure; Uncertainty; Chaos
There's a whole category of people who miss out by not allowing themselves to be weird enough. (Alain de Botton) 

Compliance (The Coordinator, Practitioner; Analyst; Logical Thinker)
Have strong inner motivation to gain knowledge and become 'the expert'
Traits
Accurate; Analytical; Cautious; Conscientious; Contemplative; Competent; Creative; Curious; Detailed; Practical; Modest; Discrete; Diplomatic; Systematic; Private
Desires
Accuracy; Details; Logic; Guidelines; Slow and Deliberate Change; Stable Environment
Focus
Procedures
Leadership Style
Deliberate; Clarity; Humble; Resolute
Value to Team
Perspective; Anchor of Reality
Weaknesses
Perfectionism; Bogged Down in Details; Slow in Making Decisions; Overly Cautious; Lack of Enthusiasm; Shy
Fears
Criticism of Performance; Strong Displays of Emotions
Motivation
High Quality Standards; Limited Social Interactions; Detail; Logic
Examples
Isaac Newton; Jack Nicklaus; Albert Einstein; Steve Wozniak
Artist work best alone. Work alone. (Steve Wozniak)
The CS Style (The Perfectionist; Precisionist):
Have a strong inner drive to be systematic and precise in all they do
Traits
Sensitive; Perfectionist; Conservative; Modest; Logical; Systematic; Factual; Non-demonstrative; Deliberate; Careful; Precise; Accurate; Predictable; Systematic Thinker
Desires
Stability, Accuracy; Support; Control; Security
Leadership Style
Modest; Fair minded; Establish Routine and Structure
Weaknesses
Rigidity; Affinity to Status Quo
Fears
Ambiguity; Emotionally Charged Environment; Quick Decisions

The CD Style (The Objective Thinker; Designer)
Have strong inner need to think critically - define and analyze
Traits
Blunt; Critical; Quiet; Dependable; Modest; Conservative; Realistic; Controlled; Logical; Factual; Alert; Stable; Perfectionist; Careful; Conventional; Skeptical; Determined; Cold; Strict; Stubborn
Desires
Efficient Results; Rational Decisions; Quality; Accuracy; Precision
Leadership Style
Creation of High Standards; Resolute 
Weaknesses
Blind to People’s Emotions; Reluctance to Delegate
Fears
Failure; Lack of Control
If you make friends with yourself you will never be alone. (Maxwell Maltz)


Below are links to a few Personality Tests for the DiSC Personality Model.


Below is a comparison between the DiSC, Four Temperaments and Elements Models.

DiSC
Temperament
Element
Characteristics
Inducement (i)
Sanguine
Air
Socializer
Dominance (D)
Choleric
Fire
Decisive, Doer
Compliance (C)
Melancholic
Earth
Deep Thinker
Submission (S)
Phlegmatic
Water
Easy-going, Relater

The intent here is not to create excuses. We are not prisoners of our biology, history or temperament. Irrespective of our tendencies, the final decision always, and will always, lie with us. We are response-able. We can harness and cultivate our tendencies to work for us, not against us.
Heart and head are the constituent parts of character; temperament has almost nothing to do with it, and, therefore, character is dependent upon education, and is susceptible of being corrected and improved. (Giacomo Casanova)


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